Ever Iceland

Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean, between Greenland and Norway. Its geographical coordinates are approximately 64.9631° N latitude and 19.0208° W longitude. Despite its name, Iceland is not covered in ice year-round but boasts a diverse range of landscapes, including glaciers, volcanoes, and geothermal hot springs.

Geography

Climate:

Iceland has a subarctic climate, characterized by cool summers and mild winters. The country’s weather is highly influenced by the North Atlantic Current, which brings relatively warm temperatures compared to other regions at similar latitudes.

Fauna:

Iceland is home to a variety of wildlife, including seabirds, marine mammals, and land animals such as Arctic foxes and reindeer. The waters surrounding Iceland teem with fish, making fishing a significant industry.

Longest Rivers:

Iceland’s longest river is the Thjórsá, which flows for approximately 230 kilometers (143 miles) through the central highlands of the country.

Highest Mountains:

The highest peak in Iceland is Hvannadalshnúkur, standing at 2,110 meters (6,923 feet) above sea level. It is located within the Öræfajökull volcano in the southern part of the country.

History

Prehistory:

The first inhabitants of Iceland were Irish monks who arrived in the 8th century. However, it was the Norse settlers who arrived in the late 9th century, led by Ingólfur Arnarson, who established the first permanent settlements.

Settlement Era:

Iceland was settled by Norsemen from Scandinavia and Celts from the British Isles during the Viking Age. The Icelandic Commonwealth, a decentralized political system, was established in the 10th century and lasted until the country came under Norwegian rule in the 13th century.

Union with Norway and Denmark:

In 1262, Iceland entered into a personal union with Norway, followed by a union with Denmark in the 14th century. For centuries, Iceland remained under Danish rule, experiencing periods of economic hardship and political repression.

Independence:

Iceland gained independence from Denmark on December 1, 1918, becoming a sovereign state in a personal union with the King of Denmark. In 1944, Iceland formally became a republic and severed all ties with Denmark.

Modern Age:

Since gaining independence, Iceland has developed into a prosperous and modern nation, known for its strong economy, progressive social policies, and commitment to environmental sustainability.

Demographics

Iceland has a population of approximately 368,000 people, making it one of the least populous countries in Europe. The majority of Icelanders are of Norse and Celtic descent, with a small percentage of immigrants from other countries. The official language is Icelandic, and the majority of the population adheres to Christianity, primarily Lutheranism.

Administrative Divisions

Iceland is divided into eight regions (landsvæði) and 74 municipalities (sveitarfélög). The administrative divisions of Iceland, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Capital Region – Population: 233,000
  2. Southern Peninsula – Population: 27,000
  3. West – Population: 15,000
  4. Westfjords – Population: 7,000
  5. Northwest – Population: 8,000
  6. Northeast – Population: 29,000
  7. East – Population: 12,000
  8. South – Population: 26,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Iceland by population include:

  1. Reykjavík
  2. Kópavogur
  3. Hafnarfjörður
  4. Akureyri
  5. Reykjanesbær
  6. Garðabær
  7. Mosfellsbær
  8. Árborg
  9. Akranes
  10. Selfoss

Education Systems

Education in Iceland is free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The country has a highly developed education system, with a strong emphasis on literacy and numeracy. Some of the top universities in Iceland include the University of Iceland, Reykjavík University, and the Iceland Academy of the Arts.

Transportation

Airports:

Iceland has several airports, with Keflavík International Airport being the largest and busiest. Other major airports include Reykjavík Airport, Akureyri Airport, and Egilsstaðir Airport.

Railways:

Iceland does not have a railway network.

Highways:

Iceland has a network of highways and roads that connect major cities and towns. The total length of paved roads in Iceland is approximately 13,000 kilometers (8,078 miles), including the famous Ring Road (Route 1), which circumnavigates the island.

Ports:

Iceland has several ports, including the Port of Reykjavík, the Port of Akureyri, and the Port of Seyðisfjörður. These ports play a crucial role in the country’s economy, facilitating trade and transportation of goods.

Country Facts

  • Population: Approximately 368,000
  • Capital: Reykjavík
  • Official Language: Icelandic
  • Religion: Christianity (Lutheranism)
  • Ethnic Groups: Icelandic (Norse and Celtic descent)
  • Currency: Icelandic Króna (ISK)
  • ISO Country Code: IS
  • International Calling Code: +354
  • Top-Level Domain: .is